Unit 10: Reshaping the Nation
- What are the causes and effects of scarcity?
- How did the United States respond to the three basic economic questions in the late 1800s?
- What goods and services shall be produced and in what quantities?
- How shall goods and services be produced?
- For whom shall goods and services be produced?
- Can American culture be defined?
- What aspects of American life made the United States so appealing to such a wide range of immigrants?
- For what reasons did immigrants leave their home lands?
- How did cultural diversity cause hardships while also advances in American Cultural?
- How did immigrants influence peoples' opinions and social patterns?
A. Problems and progress in American politics: Framework for a changing United States
- New problems created a changing role for government and the political system
- Scandals, depressions, and limitations of traditional politics resulted in reluctant change, e.g., civil service
- National politics were dominated by the Democratic and Republican parties, but third parties occasionally arose to meet special interests
- New York State and New York City in an era of machine politics,e.g., the Tweed Ring and Tammany Hall
- Prevailing attitude of noninterference ("laissez-faire") as the appropriate role for government, with some regulations to meet excesses
B. The United States developed as an industrial power
- Changes in the methods of production and distribution of manufactured goods
- Transportation developments and their effects on economic developments, 1865-1900
- Communication developments, 1865-1900
- Industrial technology, 1865-1900
- Rise of banking and financial institutions
- Increase in the number and size of firms engaged in manufacture and distribution of goods
- Increase in the number and skill level of workers; new labor markets
- Expansion of markets for manufactured goods
- The growth and emerging problems of the cities
C. Growth of the corporation as a form of business organization: Case studies—oil, railroads, steel
- One of several forms of business organization
- Many firms maintained traditional ways of doing business
- Advantages and disadvantages of a corporation
D. Government response to industrial development and abuses
- Laissez-faire versus regulation
- Interstate commerce: state and national control
- Sherman Antitrust Act: bigness as a threat
E. Changing patterns of agricultural organization and activity in the United States and New York State
- Unprecedented growth in agriculture
- Changes in the methods of production and distribution of farm products—spatial distribution of economic activities
- Efficient use of resources combined with competition and the profit motive to improve methods of production
F. Occurrence of many significant and influential changes
- Communities grew in size and number
- Interdependence increased
- Decision-making procedures changed
- Technology advanced
- Adaptation of, rather than to, the environment—human modifications of the physical environment
- Perceptions of time became more formal, e.g., railroad schedules
- Political machines influenced daily life
G. The response of labor to industrialization
- Industrialization created a larger workforce and more complex work
- Working conditions underwent extensive change, which often placed hardships on the workers; roles of women, children, minorities, disabled changed
- Early attempts to unionize the workforce met with resistance and failure, e.g., the Knights of Labor and the Haymarket Riot, American Railway Union, the Industrial Workers of the World
- Roots of modern labor unionism, e.g., the American Federation of Labor
- Labor as a reform movement in other aspects of society
H. The response of the farmer to industrialization
- Expanding agricultural production and railroads
- Cheap money and high railroad rates
- The Grange and state reforms
- The Populist movement
- The closing of the frontier—limitations of physical environment
I. The immigration experience
- Two distinct waves occurred , from the 1840s to the 1890s, and from the 1890s to the early 1920s; migration streams over time
- Differences were based on national origins, cultural patterns, and religion
- Similarities included motivations for coming and patterns of community settlement
- Initial clashes ended in varying degrees of acculturation
- Occupational and political experiences varies
J. Case studies of the immigrant experience in the United States and New York State—population characteristics
- Acomparison of European immigrants and the black slave experience—human migration's effects on the character of different places and regions
- Immigrants as rural settlers in the Midwest
- The Chinese experience in the Far West
- Mexicans in the Southwest
- New York City's ethnic neighborhoods
- French-Canadian settlement in northern New York State
- Immigration patterns and experiences throughout New York State
- Irish immigration: Mass starvation in Ireland, 1845-1850
- Immigrants in the local community
K. Legal basis for citizenship in the United States
- Citizenship by the "law of the soil"
- Citizenship by birth to an American parent
- Citizenship through naturalization
L. Responsibilities of citizenship
- Civic: A citizen should be:
- Knowledgeable about the process of government
- Informed about major issues
- A participant in the political process
- Legal: A citizen should:
- Be knowledgeable about the law
- Obey the laws
- Respect the rights of others
- Understand the importance of law in a democratic society
- The changing role of the citizen