Unit 7: Growth and Expansion

Essential Questions

  • How did social and economic life change as the United States began to move from an agrarian to an industrial society?
  • How did geographic factors contribute to this change?
  • How do statistics support historians as they research an era?
  • What political, social, and economic factors caused the Civil War?
  • What were the conflicting perspectives on slavery?
  • What kind of nation did the founding fathers create?
  • What is to be done with the institution of slavery?
  • Must sectionalism ultimately lead to disunion?


A. Portrait of the United States, 1800

  1. Agriculturally based economy
  2. Urban centers on the coast
  3. Poor communication and transportation systems
  4. Self-sufficiency
  5. Regional difference

B. Patterns of community organization, work, and family life in agrarian America

C. Technological changes altered the way people dealt with one another

  1. Improved transportation made travel and communication easier
  2. Greater ties between communities were possible
  3. The Erie Canal and its impact
    • Reasons for building the Erie Canal
    • Technology involved in its construction
    • Types and sources of labor: ethnic and racial labor force
    • Results of building the Erie Canal

D. The impact of early industrialization and technological changes on work and workers, the family, and the community

  1. An increase in the production of goods for sale rather than personal use
  2. Increased purchasing of what was formerly produced at home
  3. Emergence of a new work ethic

E. Family roles changed, affecting society in general

  1. Changing role of women
  2. Childhood became a more distinct stage of life
  3. Roles of private agencies

F. Slavery and abolition

  1. Review the institution of slavery
  2. The meaning and morality of slavery
  3. Abolition movement
  • Leadership (Harriet Tubman, Garrison, and others)
  • Activities (e.g., freedom trail and the underground railroad)
  • Abolition in New York State
  • Canada's role
  • Effects of abolition
  • G. Social changes

    1. Religious revival
    2. Women's rights
    3. Mental hospital and prison reform
    4. Education
    5. Temperance

    H. An American culture begins to emerge

    1. Literature
    2. Art

    I. Portrait of the United States, 1860

    1. 1. Growth brought about many changes and regions—the spatial patterns of settlement in different regions in the United
    • The size and shape of communities
    • Environmental impacts due to development of natural resources and industry— human modification of the physical environment
    • The diversity of people within the larger communities and regions
    • The ability of the political system within communities to deal with deviance
    • The Preindustrial Age took place at different times in different places
  • The North
    • Industrial base
    • Increasing population
    • Urban centered—"causes and consequences of urbanization"
  • The South
    • Agricultural base (cotton)
    • Impact of Industrial Revolution on agriculture
    • Increasing slave population
  • J. Territorial expansion and slavery

    1. The secession of Texas, 1836
    2. The Mexican War, 1846-1848
    3. Oregon Territory
    4. The westward movement and its effects on the physical, social, and cultural environments

    K. The emotional impact of slavery

    1. Uncle Tom's Cabin
    2. John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry
    3. Fugitive slave laws

    L. Failure of political compromise

    1. Compromise of 1850
    2. Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
    3. Founding of the Republican Party, 1854-1856
    4. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
    5. Lincoln-Douglas debate, 1858
    6. Election of 1860
    7. Firing on Fort Sumter, 1861